The International Enamellers Institute website is starting a new collection of outstanding books and technical papers of selected and tailored technical subjects on vitreous enamel technology. The collection will focus on some porcelain enamel properties and aspects of interest to the enamellers community worldwide for their practical products application. Input for improvements or suggestions from worldwide Enamellers is absolutely welcome and will be given maximum of attention.

Technical Articles

Nature of Adherence of Porcelain Enamels to Metals

An investigation of the fundamentals of the adherence of porcelain enamels to metals indicated that good adherence is the result of metal-to metal bonds between the atoms in the base metal and the proper metallic ions in the enamel.

Adherence Mechanism Theory
Researchers throughout the time have suggested many theories of Enamel Adherence and it has seemed that the problem was solved, only to find new inconsistencies later on. Before discussing these theories, it is desirable to review some of the facts linked with the adherence phenomenon.

Project and Design of the Porcelain Enamelled Steel Composites
by Silvano Pagliuca – I.E.I. Secretary General

The knowledge of mechanical and thermal properties of enamelling grade steel and of porcelain (vitreous) Enamels and the Stress-Strain analysis of vitreous-steel composite are the pillars for a correct designing of enamelled parts. Robustness of enamelled product throughout its in-use life requires that the design of the enamelled parts are developed according to specific rules and links aiming at reducing the stress / strain in the composites.

Corrosion of Enamel for Chemical Industry by Neutral Water Medium
The corrosion resistance of Porcelain or Vitreous Enamel and the very low release of glassy  matrix components have been studied from the theoretical and applicative point throughout the time and the main chemical reactions mechanism understood.

Surface Tension and Fusion Properties of Porcelain Enamels
by Charles Baldwin, Sid Feldman
Ferro Corporation

High-temperature viscosity of glasses is an important key to understanding the phenomena that occur when firing porcelain enamels.

Stress and Strain in Enamel-Steel Composites: A Practical Viewpoint
by William D. Faust, Ferro Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio USA
Enamels applied to steel have characteristics similar to bi-metallic strips. The stresses that are induced during the firing have a very practical value and can be beneficial to the after fired strength of the enamelled article. Understanding the limitations of the strains and stresses in enamels will aid in controlling the movement of parts that are exposed to high temperatures such as ovens and range tops.

Stress Reduction in Porcelain Steel Systems
by John J. Jozefowski and Anthony R. Mazzuca by Pemco Corporation
The question most often asked of porcelain enamel technical personnel is, “What can be done to reduce chipping, minimize crazing, lower warping, and eliminate spalling on enamelled parts processed in various segments of the industry?”

By Prof. F. Marzullo – Division of Clinical Research – Istituti Ospedalieri – Modena

Studies have been carried out on behalf of CISP the Italian Vitreous Enamel Association on the bacteriological properties of surfaces of various materials, both native and specially treated, and stored in a refrigerator. The studies were intended to show

1) The level of spontaneous infection in contact with milk, broth or meat;
2) The level of infection provoked by contact with known bacterial cultures;
3) The ease of decontamination by physico-chemical agents

Construction Product Directive (CPD-ER3) and REACH
I.E.I. Secretary General – Dr. Silvano Pagliuca – on February, 19, 2008 attended a workshop on the possible interfaces between Construction Product Directive (CPD-ER3) and REACH.
The subject is, in his opinion, very interesting for the world enamelling community and therefore he asked the permission to CEPMC. Brussel to download the papers in I.E.I web site.

Articles on Water Heaters and Fitness for Water Contact

EAS – European Acceptance Scheme for Construction Products in contact with Drinking Water

by Silvano Pagliuca – IEI Secretary General
EG-CPDW-SG3- NMIM – Glassy Material Expert
EG-CPDW-SG4-AMLP – SG3 Liason Observer/ Water Heater Expert.

In Europe there doesn’t exist coherent normative legislation for construction products in contact with drinking water. For the time being each Member State has its own regulatory arrangements together with either Standards or Voluntary Norms. The different regulations and local standards are creating barriers to free trade.

Boilers & vitreous enamel bosom friends
According to the Italian Decree No 31, dated 2 February 2001, “waters intended for human consumption”, are any treated or untreated waters intended to be drunk or to be used for preparing food and drink or for other domestic uses.

RG CPDW 165: Boiler
IEI requested that the Regulators Group on Construction Products in Contact with Drinking Water (RG CPDW) create a new sub-group: “Glassy Materials” in order to provide more information on the use of porcelain enamel linings in hot water tanks.

DECRETO 6 aprile 2004, n.174/Decree 6 April 2004
In its original Italian & in English
Regulation concerning materials and objects that can be used in fixed systems for the collection, treatment, adduction and distribution of water intended for human consumption (Official Gazette No. 166 of 17 July 2004)


PORCELAIN (VITREOUS) ENAMELS and Industrial Enamelling Processes The Preparation, Application and Properties of Enamels
By Andrew I. Andrews, Ph.D.
Revised and Expanded with New Technical Information
BY Silvano Pagliuca, Ph.D. & William D. Faust, BS. Cr. E., MS Mgt.

A new and valuable reference book for enamellers.

by Arch. Alessandro Ubertazzi

The publisher Hoepli recently brought out the first in what promises to be an interesting series of books that together go under the name of The Shape of Material, the brainchild of architect Alessandro Ubertazzi, who lectures in Industrial Design at the Milan Polytechnic Faculty of Design, with the aim of providing an exhaustive information textbook for professionals and students of architecture and design.
In this book, the authors – Professor Ubertazzi and another architect, Nicoletta Wojciechowski – tell all there is to know about vitreous enamel, emphasising its ancient origins, its technical properties and characteristics, the production methods that make use of state-of-the-art technologies, its chromatic values and its enormous range of applications in all sorts of different sectors.
Vitreous enamel is a very familiar material in the field of hygienic and sanitary fittings, for example. Many of this material’s applications are concerned with the bathroom, because it caters for requirements of hygiene, durability, elegant good looks and mass production. When vitreous enamel is combined with various glass and steel materials, the best qualities of both are brought out, making the latter extremely resistant to chemical agents and contributing both to the finished product’s performance and to its pleasant appearance. This leads to very extensive applications in the conventional production of bathtubs and shower trays, as well as to experiments in producing wash basins made of enamelled aluminium steel with a single-die process that makes them shockproof and gives them the benefit of the lively colour range available with enamel.
The book contains detailed descriptions of production methods (which also come across very well in the illustrations by designer Renato Di Lorenzo) that show each phase of modern metal enamelling techniques exhaustively and clearly.
The easy flow of the explanations, the tasteful choice of the images, the freshness of a modern approach to the topic and the thoroughly original way chosen for tackling such a technical subject together transform this manual into an enjoyable book.

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